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Some men, from want of instruction, believe all the current narratives, while others, more searching & cautious, disbelieve them altogether

These are the historical observations, methodical inquiries & pendragon calculations made by Damian Beeson Bullen of Burnley. My task has been one of the mightiest of challenges; the extreme scarcity of evidence left to us by the deep past is by far the largest bar to ascertaining a proper historical truth. Equally as counter-productive is the prevalent tendency among modern scholars to treat ancient reports with suspicion, to disrespect venerable writers as mere myth-makers; corrupt & devious Machiavellians with hidden agendas, especially when some nugget crops up which runs against the grain of their long-wrought, personal theories. Despite this state of affairs, I am rather of the opinion that we broad-minded moderns must respect everything that we are given as we say, ‘this is what we have got, this is what has been left to us,’ and construct our histories according to the evidence.

The scattered shrapnel of sources which have survived to the modern day originate in the minds of intelligent people, the intellectual elite of an age. We must remember each of these clue-givers represents the tip of an iceberg, for beneath the surface these scholars would have conducted their own research into the matter from accounts long lost & forgotten. Not a few of these ice-berg tips have reached modernity, but they are still a scanty sample, leaving great gaps in the historical canvas like spaces in an extremely difficult suduko square.

The fabric that is the multi-hued tapestry of history contains holes which have been darned only by the imaginations of historians. They will often use the same methods that paleontologists use when reconstructing an extinct animal entire from a single bone, or when archaeologists conjure civilizations from half a broken pot! In many cases these ‘solutions’ have left numerous loose threads dangling, when tugging upon one with any weight of serious thought unravels the entire needlework completely.

On first coming to my studies, I soon discovered that certain sections of historical research were actually in a state of chronic disarray; whether down to this defective academic needlework, or more likely an error in factual recognizance made by our earliest historians. Mistakes of the latter sort would then be perpetuated by centuries of scholars & scribes who, not knowing the material they were using was corrupt, maintained such errors as truth. Only by a painstaking examination of all the clues possible may we at some point discover if what we are reading is the actual truth, or is only a mere factoid; that is to say a fact-shaped falsity that has become generally believed. It has been my delight & my duty to detect & to correct as many of these factoids as I could find, utilizing a new investigative process known as Chispology.

What the modern sciences of forensics & ballistics are to criminal justice, so Chispology is the new tool in which to unearth, to identify, to understand & to assemble the evidence left to us by posterity. Like a microscope scouring the vast metaverses of history, Chispology helps us hone in on emerging themes, helps us deviate from false narratives & helps us to take things at prima facea, free from the obscuring mists of time & happenstance.

When looking at any piece of history, there are five separate forces which may affect an event. The first is its Realization, that is to say the moment or moments when an event occurred. The second is its Remembrance, whether contained in the memories of witnesses, or a more tactile entity such as the bullet-holes in the brickwork of Budapest, pommeled into the masonry during the Hungarian rising of 1956. The third force to effect historical events is their Recording, the moment when they are stored for posterity by some enduring medium such as the printed page or via its modern-day version, the website. From here the information diverges, whether in an act of Reproduction – i.e. copying the story with varying degrees of accuracy – or Regurgitation, a retelling, a remoulding, a refashioning of the tale.

Between an event’s Realization and its Recording, a great many factors may affect its remembrance, which inevitably results in a distortion of the truth. Over passages of time, people are prone to forget the facts of a matter, or perhaps be influenced by personal bias when it comes to the retelling. ‘History is written by the victors,’ piped Winston Churchill, and after winning the Second World War it was his 6-volume epic on the affair which became the seminal touchstone for all future students of the war. As time spins on further from an event’s realization, especially those of hundreds – if not thousands – of years ago, items of remembrance become rarer & rarer, opening themselves up to such misinterpretations that one false academic assumption can send scholars spinning off into barren cul-de-sacs for centuries.

These alterations in remembrance occur under the auspices of what I have labelled the ‘Chisper Effect,’ named after the children’s parlor game, Chinese Whispers, in which a bunch of noisy kids with chocolate smudged-faces gather together in a circle. A single sentence whispered ear-to-ear, and by the time that string of words has traveled the circuit it has almost inevitably ben altered in sound & sense. In the same fashion, an alteration of sound and sense has affected a lot of our historical information. In this day and age, the era of mass communication, a piece of writing can be sent to billions right across the world without it changing one iota. Things were very, very different in the past, however; until the advent of printing in the 15th century names, places, dates etc. were oftentimes corrupted through transmission, whether orally or through the scribal transliteration of texts.

Where Sir Frederick Kenyon writes, ‘the human hand and brain have not yet been created which would copy the whole of a long work absolutely without error,’ the Roman poet Martial, infuriated by this lack of accuracy, complained, ‘if any poems… seem to you either too obscure or not quite good Latin, not mine is the mistake: the copyist spoiled them in his haste to complete for you his tale of verses.’ As centuries pass, and new alterations are bolted onto the old, the original names and bona fide facts became ever more obscured in the mists of history. Modern academia is faced with this annoyingly messy morass of information, a jiggedy jumble which has baffled the best of brains, but once we begin to understand the processes of the Chisper Effect, we may begin to make sense of that maddening jumble. If history is a kaleidoscopic patchwork of confused accounts, then Chispology is the lens that coalesces the evidence into a cohesive & logical depiction.

I have called an identifiable occasion of alteration in an act of historical remembrance a Chisper, of which there are three principle forms, or Transchispers. Of these, the Philochisp is a subtle phonetical variation that is obtained through the transmission of a word or phrase. The Factochisp is a distortion of an event’s ‘realisation’ into something different to that which occurred. The Creochisp is an embellishment of an event, its regurgitation, a milder form of distortion that has been influenced by the original, but takes on a whole new spirit of its own. The more mouths & minds through which information passes, the more open to corruption becomes the truth. These moments of alteration can be strung together into ‘chains’ known as Philochains, Creochains and Factochains, which may then intertwine like an infuriating jumble of thick wooly thread call’d a CHISPERBALL. Here follow two examples, both of which spring from the same event, being: John stole five hundred turkeys from the market.


John stole five hundred turkeys from the market.

Jane stole five hundred turkeys from the market.

Jane stole five hungry turkeys from the market.


John stole five hundred turkeys from the market.

John bought five hundred turkeys from the market.

John bought five hundred turkeys from the farm.

The two sentences, ‘John bought five hundred turkeys from the farm,’ & ‘Jane stole five hungry turkeys from the market,’ seem the record of quite different events. But we in the know understand they are both errant remembrances of a singular happening. It is the Chispologist’s task to unravel these chispers, as if they were following a piece of thread through a maze to the pointed rock on which the ball of yarn was caught. When analyzing such tangles, the good student will learn to think outside the box, acquiring an instinctual feel for the similarities between Jane’s stealing of five turkeys & John’s buying of five hundred turkeys, then enable themselves with the tools which shall aid them in investigating & identifying the chispers which shall lead them back to their common source of realisation, tracing the changing phases of fact and phrase from origin to reception. The Chispologist must ask why is the information different, where are the points of diversion, and what happened to the separated strands in the meantime.

Of the three species of chisper, when it comes to historical investigations the Philochisp is the most prominent. These may be easily observable, as when the English Peter becomes the Dutch Pieter; the Albanian Petro, the Indonesian Petrus & the Spanish Pedro. Note how, in the Spanish version, the letter ‘t’ has been changed to a ‘d,’ while the –er ending has become -ro. A copyist’s error here may lead to something like ‘Badro’ & we are presented with a name from which only faint hints of ‘Peter’ may be discerned. The student of Chispology must be aware of vast varieties in languages & dialects – some alive, some dead – through which a name may have traveled, before arriving on the page or screen before us. Most days of the week the English-speaking people’s are faced with such transmission, for these twenty-four hour units of time are in fact named after the gods of the Anglo-Saxons. Tuesco’s Day became Tuesday; Woden’s Day became Wednesday; Thor’s day became Thursday & Freia’s Day became Friday.

Imagine an underground train travelling through Delhi during the Commonwealth Games of 2010. Three consecutive carriages are filled with the visiting natives of three separate countries – in the first are Mauris from New Zealand, in the second are Zulus from South Africa and in the third are Inuits from Canada. On to the train steps an itinerant singer from Rajasthan, whose sweet voice entertains the carriages to the accompaniment of a stringed sarangi. As he makes his way through the train collecting money, each set of visitors asks him his name. That night, during animated meal-time conversations, all three sets of visitors remember the singer’s name, which has now been subtly changed through the lingual processes of each of their three languages, resulting in three different versions of the original. Twenty-five years later, at three separate reunion dinners, the Rajhastani singer is spoken of again, only this time no-one can quite remember what he was called. A name is mentioned, which the company agrees to along the lines of, ‘yes that sounds right,’ but of course it is not the same, and the name has changed yet again through the mnemonic processes of the Chisper Effect. By this point in the process, as it made its way through time and language, six different versions of the singer’s name have developed out of the original,

When we place several philochisps together we construct what is known as a philochain. The links are made by philofortes & philopianos. The latter are pretty easy to see, such as the similarities between Bs & Ps. The former, the pianofortes, are less evident, such as Msd becoming Ds. Together they bind the philochain, an alternative name for which is the more poetic-sounding Babel-Chain, after the biblical Tower of Babel in which God divided the world’s original language. Just as normal chains are only as strong as its weakest link, the Babel-Chain works best when each philochisp is supported by confirmable facts. Without the back-up of historical evidence, all we would possess is a simple list of phonetically interconnected names, & quite a good deal of historical research stands on such shaky ground. A good example of a well-supported babel-chain is found within the mythology of King Arthur, in which the name of his wife, Guinevere, appears with five variant spellings.

If you could spare a moment to say the following names out aloud, slowly and in sequence, you should be able to feel each philochisp as it occurs.


When comparing the names Gwenhwyfar and Wander, it would appear strange to suggest they were the same woman, but analyzing the sources shows both names have been ascribed to the legendary queen of King Arthur.

Three unbridled ravagings of the Isle of Britain: The first of them, when Medrawd came to Arthur’s court in Celli Wig in Cornwall; he left neither food nor drink in the court he did not consume, and he also pulled Gwenhwyfar out of her chair of state
The Welsh Triads C.13th

On the following day, the British camp was ransacked. In it were discovered Arthur’s consort Queen Guanora, and no few men and women of noble blood
Hector Boece C.16th

It is the scene of innumerable legends, which agree in representing it as the residence or prison of the infamous Vanora or Guinevar, who appears in the local traditions under the more homely appellation of Queen Wander, and is generally described as a malignant giantess
The New Statistical Account of Scotland 1845

As I proceed through my investigations, I hope to bring together more Gwenhwyfars and Wanders, interconnecting their variant names within webs of external evidence, & square by square fill up that historical suduko square. It is during my researches that I have been often startled by the latent powers of words, when even the smallest & most innocuous of place-names can be an eternal storehouses of so much history. To the budding Chispologist I say; take a walk in the countryside, note the names of the cloughs & the hills, & let us weave our histories, drawn from the phonetical landscape of our towns & their wonderful surrounds.In this next complex example, we will have to recognize not only philochisps, but factochips & creochisps also, all tangled together in their chisperballs. The case in question is the identity of the man behind the legend that is Robin Hood, the Lincoln Green wearing, bow-wielding outlaw of Sherwood Forest. We know he lived before 1377, when a mention of him appears in the poem Piers Ploughman by William Langland;

I can not parfitli mi paternoster, as the preist it singeth / But I can the ryms of Robin Hode, and Randolf Erl of Chester.

A 15th century Scottish historian called John of Fordun then gives ‘Robin’ a very solid date – that of 1265. He writes, ‘In that year also [1265] the disinherited English barons and those loyal to the king clashed fiercely; amongst them Roger de Mortimer occupied the Welsh Marches and John-de-Eyville occupied the Isle of Ely; Robert Hood was an outlaw amongst the woodland briar’s and thorns.’

Fordun’s information is a regurgitated creochisp of the actual truth. As he researched the matter, he came across information that a certain Robert Hode was Robin Hood, & that his epithet or surname came from his place of residence, Hood or Hode Castle at Kilburn, North Yorkshire. On investigating further, John of Fordun must have discovered that the property had once been in the hands of the D’Eyville family, whose principle member was Sir John D’Eyville, the baron who ‘occupied the Isle of Ely.’ Sir John was a rebellious fellow who did fight alongside Simon de Montfort, & thus Fordun presumed that Robin Hood was Sir John D’Eyville of Hode Castle, & wrote his account accordingly. The reality is somewhat quite different, for it is in the person of Sir John’s junior kinsman, Robert D’Eyville that we must identify the true Robin Hood.

The first concrete mention of Robin occurs in the margins of a Latin poem written down in 1304 by the Prior of Alnwick. The original text can be found in the first volume of Francis Peck’s unpublished edition of the Monasticon, now in the British Museum, with the title of; ‘Prioris Alnwicensis de hello Scotico upud Dumbarr, tempore rigis Edwardi I. dictamen sive rithmus Latinus, quo de WIILIELMO WALLACE, Scotico illo ROBIN WHOOD, plura sed invidiose cani.’ On this title we read how the great Scottish freedom fighter, William Wallace of Braveheart fame, is described as ‘the Scottish Robin Hood.’

Being a contemporary of Wallace leads us to the Duchess of Cleveland’s Battle Roll, where our suggested Robin, Robert D’Eyville, ‘earned a fearsome reputation as a well-born miscreant,’ alongside his brother Joseline. Together, these two brothers famously rampaged with some violence across the north of England, targeting travelers & religious houses. As they struck, they would use the same methodology as that executed by Robin Hood in the ballads which framed his legend. One raid in particular is especially resonant of the modus operandi of Robin; in order to rob the Bishop of Durham at Northallerton, Robert , Joseline & two hundred men dressed in the habit of friars.

We must also examine the Calendar of Patent Rolls for 1318, where on November 1st we are presented with a list of fifty or so adherents of Thomas Lovel of Skelton. Among the names we can very clearly identify two of Robin’s main gang-members; William Scarlett & John de Methle. The latter man is recorded elsewhere in the same period as ‘Liteljohn of Methley,’ who was an archer captain in the retinue of the Earl of Lancaster.

That Robert D’Eyville of Hood, Will Scarlett & Little John were all active c.1320 puts them in the correct time period in which is set the earliest ballad concerning the legend – A Lytell Geste of Robyn Hode. The story shows Robin being vilified by an un-numbered King Edward, who was conducting a tour of the north of England in order to sort out the problem of the poaching of royal deer from a certain ‘Plomton Park;’

All the passe of Lancasshyre
He went both ferre and nere
Tyll he came to Plomton Parke
He faylyd many of his dere

There our kynge was wont to se
Herdes many one
He coud unneth fynde one dere
That bare ony good horne

This back story fits with the neatliest of sweetness into that of King Edward II, who stayed at Ightenhill Manor in my home town of Burnley, Lancashire, between the 4th & the 13th of October, 1323. Between Burnley & the town of Rossendale there once stretched a great swathe of deer-dotted hunting ground through which the modern Woodplumpton Road winds today. I’ve walked it myself, a lovely country tonic to the vigours & rush of urban grittiness. From Woodplumpton we can notice the philochisp to Plomton, & that the Burnley area was Robin’s stomping ground may also be seen in an enemy of his called Guy of Gisburne, who heralded from a town just a few miles to the north.

More support can be found again in the Geste, in a certain character called ‘Richard at the Lee.’ Hitherto this day he has remained unidentified by the most strenuous study, but if we dig a little deeper we come across a figure in history who fits the bill, the 14th century Richard de la Legh who married Cecily Towneley, of Towneley Hall, Burnley. He would not long after take her family name – & estate – becoming Richard Towneley, erasing his original name from all but the most obscure of records. I found the evidence one day while casually examining a great family tree in Towneley Hall itself, a spot of literary archeology which should help stabilise the true identity of Robin Hood.

In the Geste, we are also told that Richard possessed a castle at a place called called Verysdale, or Uterysdale. This would then connect to a name in a 1273 land grant which records land owned by Gilbert de la Legh – Richard’s father – lying on both sides of the River Calder at Towneley called Weterode and Waderode. The ‘dale’ suffix would then be the open valley of ‘weter,’ giving us.


Chispology is the academic cloth that wipes away the dirt which accumulates over time, that cakes facts with a muggy untruths. In the Chisper Effect I showed how where the historian dismisses information as romancing or mythology, the Chispologist learns how to read outside of the box and recognize where the truths are in a tale. The beauty of Chispology is that it is always possible to find some kind of solution to a puzzle. Whether it is correct, of course, is down to the weight of evidence which transplants a theory from conjecture, thro’ circumstantially proven to the realms of ‘distinct possibility.’

The process is known as the Ladder of Possibility, of which there are four rungs. The first question the Chispologist must ask is if a hyperbasis is possible or not. For example, it is definitively impossible for Julius Ceasar to be Jack The Ripper. Once establishing a possibility, the Chispologist must then add their efforts to what is known as the Weight of Possibility. The more ‘coincidences’ one can unearth, the heavier becomes the weight, & the lower down the ladder we can go


It is into the bedsoil of any chispological stiudy that one must be prepared to plant what is known as a HYPERBASIS. This is a statement of fact made with the best evidence available, spliced with a dash of creative understanding. Another weapon in Chispological Lexicon is the rather exotic looking, ANTHROTREE, which constitutes the main trunk of the ancient peoples, or tribe, we are discussing. Out of this entity shoot branches – & of course sub-branches – representing Culture, Theology, Linguistics, Archeology & Genetics. If any tree is living well & prospering with the vital energies of life, a rush of green foliage soon flows into & between the branches like tidal water into coastal rocks. In the same fashion, if the hyperbasis of AN anthrotree is correct, & the evidence which have created the branches infallible, then we should be able to find upon the tree certain corresponding literary legacies – ie leaves. Together they make up the foliage of an anthrotree

If we were able to plant the same species of anthrotree in a different places, & see it also bear healthy leafage & indisputable fruits, then surely the two trees will support each other intrinsically. This would just be like comparing the far-scattered members of the old British Empire who still play rugby & cricket, still worship Jesus, still speak the mother tongue. These are the branches of the British anthrotree.

Having elucidated some of the nuances of Chispology, I shall now make a small examination of some of the more famous mysteries of human history. As we go we shall find the true indenties of many major historical figures such as Joseph, Zeus, Menaleus, Aphrodite, Jesus & King Arthur, along with finding the true origins of the Holy Grail & the location of the Stone of Destiny. We’ll also discover the location of several Dark Age battlefields on the island of Britain, & also where the aforementioned divine relics ended up. Hold onto your hats, for its time we entered the historical hurricane that is the Chisper Effect.


Perhaps some day in the future the puzzle of the origin of these Celtic Berbers will be solved, and this may lead to much of our ancient history, most of which is mere conjecture, having to be re-written.

J.M. McGill

It has long been acknowledged that one of the Earth’s most fertile islands lies off the eastern coast of Canada, whose first ancestral settlers adorned with the most honorable name of Nova Scotia. To this day the population remains vigorously proud of its Old World roots, indefinitely perpetuating the linguistic, athletic & literary heritage that sailed to its shores across the vast Atlantic from the sea-ports of Scotland. Especially vibrant among the communities of Cape Breton is the love of traditional Scottish music; from a tender Burnsian ballad to the swirling bewitchery of a fiddle-driven cailie. These, & other snippets of Caledonian culture, have helped carve the spirit of the Nova Scotian, who often gazes fondly across the ocean stream, through the remote ruggedness of the mountain wilds, yon the serene beauty of the still-water’d lochs to the gargoyle-hewn city of Edinburgh, where beats the pulsing heart of the Scottish diaspora. When asked of their ancient kindred, most Nova Scotians are aware of Bonnie Prince Charlie, Robert the Bruce & William Wallace. Certain scholarly sorts will remember Kenneth MacAlpine, the great Scottish king who defeated & absorbed the Picts, & created the united nation that we moderns know as Scotland. Yet others will recall the name of Fergus Mor, the leader of the Ulster Scots, who crossed the Irish Sea to found the Kingdom of Dalriada, c.500AD. There will als be a cluster of Nova Scotian historians who have made notice of the references in classical literature to the Scotti, that tribe of Irish sea-pirates who harassed the British coastline during the days of the Roman Empire. Before this the Scots are lost to posterity, but for one obscure account contained in the writings of a good number of medieval chroniclers who, despite slight variance in content, stated as fact these four following cardinal points;

The Scots were named after Scota, an Egyptian princess

Scota married a Greek warrior called Gaythelos

They were driven from Egypt & settled in Spain

They later left Spain & settled in Ireland.

It is the main object of this book to discover if there is any truth whatseoever in the legend of Scota. My personal interest in the topic began in the summer of 2011, while reading through a large & impressive hardback book by the Edinburgh-based artist Robert Powell. The text of one chapter, called by the intriguingly enticing name of‘Polypanokatohypnopseudoscotichronicon,’ was supplied by a certain Gregor Sloss, where one passage in particular caught my eye, reading;

According to information collected some years ago from an elderly goatherd in the village of Krioneri, half-way up a mountain & in the middle of nowhere in the middle of Crete, the princess who founded Scotland was actually a Minoan, & the proof of this is that many Scots have dark hair.

This is the first time that the idea of Princess Scota being not Egyptian, but Minoan, was ever muted in print. Centered on the palaces of Bronze Age Crete, the Minoan culture flourished from c.2000 BC to c1450BC,a period which saw the building of beautiful palaces, the creation of exquisite art & the invention of one of the world’s first alphabets – Linear A. The Minoan capital seems to have been the magnificent palace at Knossos, northern Crete, where in the 19th century the famous archeologist Sir Arthur Evans discovered the very Labyrinth that had been mythologized as the legendary prison of the mythological Minotaur(a). His discovery was made in 1900, only a couple of decades after another pioneering archeologist, Heinrich Schliemann, excavated the true city of Troy. Before these great endeavours in the dust, academic consensus had regarded the story of Minos & the poetry of the Iliad as unproveable fancies… & yet the truth in those tales were literally dug out of the ground. With Schliemann, it was a case of knowing where to look, & he used topographical clues found in Homer & elsewhere to pinpoint the hill of Hisalrik in NW Turkey as the likeliest site for Troy, a deduction soon vindicated by the excavation of massive cyclopic walls dating to the Late Bronze Age.

Just as the Trojan War had been dismissed as a myth since the Enlightenment, so the legend of Princess Scota continues to be looked upon with some skepticism. However, any investigation can be reinvigorated by a new clue popping-up, & I felt that this new notion of Scota being Minoan could well be an important lead, & was worth folloing up. So, donning my best deer-stalker I endeavored to track down Mr. Sloss in order to find out more, eventually discovering him in the Scottish capital. A charming intellectual who spoke to me of the morning he stumbled across the vital clue to unraveling the origin of the Scots:

In 2009, while hiking through the orange-dotted Cretan countryside, I came across a village of about a hundred people called Krioneri, situated well off the tourist trail. Near the entrance to the village stood an old farmhouse, whose garden was full of blooming flowers & ripening vegetables. It was also home to one of those annoying Greek dogs who bark ferociously at strangers, whose incessant yelping brought its old owner out of the house to see what was going on. Noticing that I was a tourist, he asked me in reasonable English where I was headed. After replying that I was simply exploring the area he promptly, & very excitedly, invited me in for a drink.

His name was Manoles – short for Emmanuel – & he brought out some delicious home-made wine in old water bottles. Like most Greeks, he had a decent command of English & our conversation began to roll easily. After pleasantries were exchanged he asked me of my marital status, & on replying I was single he told me of the many beautiful women that lived on the island of Crete & urged me to find one of my own. After this, the conversation swung to my origins, & on telling him I was Scottish he said, “You know of course how Scotland was founded?”

“Go on,” I replied.

“You are the Cretans of Britain & we are the Scots of Greece. Many years ago during the Minoan civilization, there were too many of us & a princess of Minoa went sailing with many Minoans – they travelled very far & founded new land – that is why many people in your country have dark hair, because of the princess!”

“That is amazing,” I told the old farmer, “In Scotland we have the same story, only the princess is Egyptian!”

“It is not amazing,” said Manoles with a wistful sigh, “but very sad! Everyone knows of the Vikings & the Pharaohs, but the Minoans have been forgotten… yet, I assure you the story I have told is true. I heard it from my father as he heard it from his – a tradition that has been in our family forever.”

Mr. Sloss described to me how struck he had been by stumbling upon an old man in the middle of nowhere who knew all about Princess Scota. To him, the odds of his Manoles having read the Scotichronicon of Walter Bower – in which the Scota legend is chiefly preserved – was a long shot too far. I concurred most heartily, & after thanking him for an interesting story, parted his pleasant company for the academic cloisters of the Scottish National Library.
Submerging my studies among the many tangled legends of Princess Scota, my first port of call was the Scotichronicon mentioned by Mr. Sloss. In reality this book is actually a paraphrase & continuation of an earlier history of Scotland, the Chronica Gentis Scotorum (1385) by John of Fordun. His magnificent & erudite work formed Scotland’s first attempt to provide its people with a continuous story, synthesizing the scattered droplets of history into a single stream, & it is by diving headlong into Fordun’s telling of the legend, translated by the grand old erudite 19th century Scottish scholar WF Skene, that we obtain our first glimpse of Princess Scota.

In this modern age, this exotic myth remains unknown to the larger part of the Scoits, & Gregor told me how struck he had been by stumbling upon an old rustic sort in the middle of nowhere knowing all abous Scota when he had almost definitely not read the Scotichronicon of Walter Bower. I heartily concurred & aftyer thanking him for his interesting story, left his pleasant company for the academic cloisters of the Scottish National Library to submerge my studies among the many tangled legends of Princess Scota. First port of call was the Scotichronicon mentioned by Mr Sloss. Assembled in the 15th century by Walter Bower, the abbot of Inchcolm, its eleven books relate the history of Scotland up to the death of King James I in 1437. In reality, the Scotichronicon is a actually a paraphrase & continuation of an earlier history of Scotland, the Chronica Gentis Scotorum (1385), by John of Fordun. This magnificent & erudite work formed Scotland’s first attempt to provide its people with a continuous story, synthesising the scattered droplets of history into a single stream. It is by dibing headlong into Fordun’s telling of the legend, translated by the grand old erudite 19th century Scottish scholar WF Skene, that we obtain our first glimpse of Princess Scota. From here the romantic legend behind the exile of Scota & Gaythelos from Egypt left traces in different mythomemes, temples & in the very ground itself, whose scattered shards I hope to have herein reassembled into some kind of cohesive piece of Bronze Age pottery.

The final leg of the great Odyssey embarked on by Scota & Gaythelos was carried out by her descendants almost two millennia later. C.500 A.D., when the Scots, under King Fergus, officially arrived in Scotland. Within a few hundred years they had conquered & absorbed the Picts, & given their ancient tribal name to a new united nation called Scotland. Its kings were one-by-one crowned upon a stone brought from Egypt by Gaythelos, until it was apparently taken to London by Edward I & set in the Westminster Coronation Chair. Finally return’d in 1996, with Scotland on the cusp of devolution, the stone sits proudly in Edinburgh Castle by the ‘Honours of Scotlands’ the crown & scepter of the Scottish Kings. Only it doesn’t actually. Instead it is a replica stone & the real one was hidden monks in the Hill of Dunsinane near Perth in the days before the English arrived at Scone.

B.C. 2050: Cadmus & The Art Of Writing

Now the Dionysus who was called the son of Semele, daughter of Cadmus, was about sixteen hundred years before my time

So these Phoenicians, including the Gephyraians, came with Kadmos and settled this land, and they transmitted much lore to the Hellenes, and in particular, taught them the alphabet which, I believe the Hellenes did not have previously, but which was originally used by all Phoenicians

The Chisper Effect has been written down, tippy-tappy typy by me for a full decade. The art of writing itself is only about 4 millenia old, & in the west it begins with a certain Cadmus, the ‘carrier of the letter’ to the world. According to Herodotus, his grandson – Dionysis son of Semele – lived sixteen hundred years before his time, or around 2000 BC. Adding a couple of generations to this brings us to ‘about’ a 2050 BC date for Cadmus. He also describes the Cadmean writing he had seen in the temple of Apollo at Thebes engraved on certain tripods. On one of the tripods there was this inscription in Cadmean writing, which, as he attested, resembled Ionian letters: 

Ἀμφιτρύων μ᾽ ἀνέθηκ᾽ ἐνάρων ἀπὸ Τηλεβοάων
Amphitryon dedicated me [don’t forget]the spoils of [the battle of] Teleboae.”).

Herodotus then adds that the inscription, ‘would date from about the time of Laius the son of Labdacus, grandson of Polydorus and great-grandson of Cadmus. These are all prominent charcters in the Theban histories, Oedipus pops ip later on, all of which nod back to Cadmus as finding the great city of Thebes & itys citadel, known as the Cadmeia. The story goes as follows; after consulting the oracle at Delphi. The oracle told him to follow a cow with a half moon on her flank, & to build a town on the spot where the cow lies down exhausted. According to Sarantis Symeonoglou (The Topography of Thebes from the Bronze Age to Modern Times), in the Early Helladic III period, just when Herodotus said Cadmus was alive, archeologists have detected, ‘two buildings of monumental character… the remarkably large dimensions of the main room could only have been achieved with the structural support of column, possibly as many as four… their sheer size, in addition to the isolated find of a hoard of bronze tools, marks them as structures fit for kings.’

We can now say that western writing began to evolve through the Phoenician influx into Greece of the Aegean Bronze Age. There are several examples of written letters, such as in Nestor’s narrative concerning Bellerophon, a letter sent from Priam/Odysseus to Palamedes, as well as the letters described by Plutarch as written by Theseus & presented Ariadne. Plutarch goes on to describe how Theseus erected a pillar on the Isthmus of Corinth, which bears an inscription of two lines.

The myths tell us that the daughter of Cadmus, Europa, was taken to Crete, putting a Phoenician presence on the island where was found a script known as Linear A. It is based on the cunieform script of the assyrians & has been undeciphered as yet. Its descendeant, Linear B, however, is an archaic form of Greek. We have evidence that the Cretans were a great civilisation, before being usurped by the Mycynean Greeks, the speakers of Linear B. These Mycyneans absorbed many of the Cretan social qualities, including the idea of human like gods. They would have aquired & slightly altered the Linear A script. Linear B tablets were then discovered have been found in abundance at Cadmus’ Thebes, on which was inscribed an earlier form of Greek. By about 900 BC, the Greeks began using the Phoenician letter forms which had been developed around 1050 BC.

As for the name of Kadmus, in Phoenician, as well as Hebrew, the Semitic root qdm signifies “the east”; the equation of Kadmos with the Semitic qdm was traced to a publication of 1646 by R. B. Edwards. Utilising the Chisper Effect also allows us to introduce a hyperfact that Cadmus of Thebes was the Cadmas of the Bible. It begins with Joseph’s great-uncle Ishmael – brother of Isaac – among whose children was Kedemah (קדמה), recorded by Josephus as Cadmas. The legends behind Cadmus fit a Semitic origin, for he was connected to Tyre, on the shores of ancient Phoenicia.

Thus we come to Cadmas the Ishmaelite, whose tribe were said to inhabit the northern parts of the Sinai peninsular. It is in this area, at the ancient mining complex of Serabit el-Khadim, that the world’s oldest consonantal script was discovered. Dated to about 1850 B.C, it is called Proto-Sinaitic, or Old Canaanite, & it records an early semitic language. From its pictorial symbols the Paleo-Hebrew, Phoenician and the South Arabian letters were evolved; & thus by extension most historical and modern alphabets. And of course, adding a wee ‘s‘ to ‘Khadim’ gives us a name that sounds remarkably like Cadmus.

B.C. 2000: The Patriarchs & The Stone Of Destiny

Sarai was barren; she had no child. Terah took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Haran, his grandson, and Sarai his daughter-in-law, his son Abram’s wife; and they went out together from Ur of the Chaldeans in order to enter the land of Canaan; and they went as far as Haran, and settled there. The days of Terah were two hundred and five years; and Terah died in Haran.

Book Of Genesis

In the Book of Genesis, where we read at the very start, ‘In the beginning God created the heavens & earth,’ which is soon followed by the astrotheological mythologizing of the creation of Eden in the Bible, & the great flood during which Noah built his ark. After the floodwaters subside to leave a sparklingly fresh planet Earth, & after an awful lot of ‘begatting,’ we come to the sequence of Hebrew founding fathers known as the Patriarchs. According to to Genesis, the home city of Terah & his son, Abraham was the Ur of the Chaldeans, from where they resettl’d around Shechem, in Canaan.

Abram traveled through the land as far as the site of the great tree of Moreh at Shechem.” At that time, God promised Abram, “To your offspring I will give this land”

Then he believed in the LORD; and He reckoned it to him as righteousness. And He said to him, “I am the LORD who brought you out of Ur of the Chaldeans, to give you this land to possess it.

The next mention of Shechem is when the Bible records that Jacob, Abram’s grandson, “camped within sight of the city” (Gn 33:18). Excavations have revealed that the earliest urbanization at Tell Balata, at Shechem, began 2000-1900 BC. Archaeologists have revealed that Tell Balata in MB I had structures with mudbrick walls on stone foundations and they have found an abundance of artifacts typical of domestic living (Toombs 1992: 1179).

The Bible records that during Jacob’s stay he purchased land near Shechem. This parcel would become the place where his son, Joseph, would later be entombed (Jos 24:32). Just southeast of Tell Balata is an ancient well, venerated to be a well that Jacob, the Patriarch, dug when he lived there. There is a small Arab village, Askar, just north of the well, which most scholars associate with Sychar, the village in John 4 near “Jacob’s well”.

It is a few miles south of Shechem, at Bethel, that we also encounter the Stone of Destiny for the first time in the form of Jacob’s Dream. Jacob was the son of Isaac, son of Abraham, whose sons would form the Twelve Tribes of Israel. The Book of Genesis tells us the story of how Jacob, sleeping on a piece of stone, dreamt of a ladder full of angels ascending & descending from heaven;

He came to a certain place and stayed there for the night, because the sun had set. Taking one of the stones of the place, he put it under his head and lay down in that place. And he dreamed that there was a ladder set up on the earth, the top of it reching to heaven; and the angels of God were ascending and descending on it. So Jacob rose early in the morning, and he took the stone that he had put under his head and set it up for a pillar and poured oil on the top of it.

These events are said to have occurred at Bethel, modern Beit El, 12 miles to the north of Jerusalem. The land is rich in both basalt & doromite, with a crusader fortin the vicinity having been built entirely from basalt. These rocks, along with granite, are generally black, & are often mistaken for meteor stone. When we encounter the stone of Destiny at Dunsinane in Scotland, possessing recorded meteoric qualities, we obtain the proof that had its geological origins at Bethel.

Twenty-two years after Jacob anoints the stone, he finds himself fleeing again, this time to get out from under his overbearing uncle and now father-in-law Laban. God again comes to Jacob in a dream and reminds him of his vow to use the anointed stone to be the house of God.

Returning to the Biblical mentions of Shechem, it is in connection with the story of 17-year-old Joseph, Jacob’s son, who was sold into slavery by his jealous brothers . In the account, Joseph’s brothers were grazing the family’s flocks near Shechem when Jacob sent Joseph to inquire of them. After looking for them at Shechem, he found them a short distance north at Dothan. There, the brothers conspired to sell Joseph into slavery, & it is along this 4000 year old story that the Stone of Destiny begins its journey to Scotland.

B.C. 1970: The Biblical Joseph

Artapanus says, in his book concerning the Jews, that Joseph was a descendant of Abraham and son of Jacob: and because he surpassed his brethren in understanding and wisdom, they plotted against him. But he became aware of their conspiracy, and besought the neighbouring Arabs to convey him across to Egypt: and they did what he requested; for the kings of the Arabians are offshoots of Israel, being sons of Abraham, and brethren of Isaac. And when he had come to Egypt and been commended to the king, he was made administrator of the whole country. And whereas the Egyptians previously occupied the laud in an irregular way, because the country was not divided, and the weaker were unjustly treated by the stronger, he was the first to divide the land, and mark it out with boundaries, and much that lay waste he rendered fit for tillage, and allotted certain of the arable lands to the priests. He was also the inventor of measures, and for these things he was greatly beloved by the Egyptians. He married Aseneth a daughter of the priest of Heliopolis, by whom he begat sons. And afterwards his father and his brethren came to him, bringing much substance, and were set to dwell in Heliopolis and Sais, and the Syrians multiplied in Egypt. These he says built both the temple in Athos and that in Ileliopolis, and were called Ermiuth. Soon afterwards Joseph died, as did also the king of Egypt. So Joseph while governor of Egypt stored up the corn of the seven years, which had been immensely productive, and became master of Egypt.


In the Book of Genesis, after the floodwaters which bore Noah & his Ark to Mount Arafat subside, leaving a sparklingly fresh planet, & after an awful lot of ‘begatting,’ we come to one of the earliest Biblical patriarchs, Joseph. His existence has always been disputed, & for those who do believe he lived, his epoch has never been satsifactorily established. However, during the reign of a 12th dynasty pharoah called Amenemhat I, a canal was built to link the Fayum Depression with the Nile, & its name – Bahr Yussef, or ‘Joseph’s Waterway.’

Using the reign of Amenemhat (1991-1962 BC) as a marker, we may unearth the actual archeological record of a gentleman who certainly feels like Joseph. He is more famous these days for being the all-singing, all-dancing, technicolour-dreamcoat-wearing fellow of an Andrew Lloyd-Webber musical. The realisation of the story, however, is no fanciful fairytale, for an actual archeological record of his existence was discovered during the 1907-08 excavations at Lisht, a village to the south of Cairo. Excavations uncovered four relief blocks, all seemingly from a single ancient scene which had been broken into pieces by the ravages of time. Of these blocks, the largest bears an Egyptian name, Sobeknahkt, who was a royal official under pharaoh Amenemhat I. This leads us to a sentence in the Book of Genesis (41:45), which reads;

Pharaoh gave Joseph the name Zaphenath-panea

Sob Zaph
Ek He
Nahkt Nath

The four blocks at Lisht provide more information on Sobeknahkt, cementing his links with the Biblical Joseph. His title of ‘Royal Chief Steward,’ fits perfectly with Genesis 45:8, which states; ‘So it was not you who sent me here, but God; he has made me a father to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house and ruler over all the land of Egypt.’ The blocks give Sobeknahkt another title, that of ‘Chief of the Friends,’ which suggests that Joseph was the most trustworthy of all the pharaoh’s officials. This very idea is reflected by the Biblical pharaoh’s proclamation to Joseph of; ‘only with regard to the throne will I be greater than you.’ Where the blocks name a woman described as ‘beloved Dejeb-nut’ as belonging to Sobeknahkt’s family, we may see this name as an Egyptian philochisp of the Hebrew Di-Nah, a woman said to be the sister of Joseph. If this is correct, then blocks’ depictiopn of Sobeknahkt’s ‘beloved father,’ may be in all actuality the Biblical patriarch, Jacob.

Significantly, one of the blocks shows Sobeknahkt filling storage jars, just as Joseph was said to have put aside one fifth of Egypt’s produce in preparation for famine. Genesis 41:48 reads; ‘He gathered up all the food of the seven years when there was plenty in the land of Egypt, and stored up food in the cities; he stored up in every city the food from the fields around it.’ That a major famine occurred during this period is evinced elsewhere by an ancient Egyptian text known as ‘The Teaching of King Amenemhat,’ within which we find a solid reference to that particular pharaoh’s anti-famine measures; ‘None hungered in my years, none thirsted then. Men rested through what I had done, and told tales of me.’ The Biblical parallel to Amenemhat’s statement would be, ‘the seven years of plenty that prevailed in the land of Egypt came to an end; and the seven years of famine began to come, just as Joseph had said. There was famine in every country, but throughout the land of Egypt there was bread.’

Another important piece of evidence can be found in the reign of either Amenemhat, or possibly his successor Sensuret I. In this instance a farmer called Heqanakht mentions that despite a great famine ravaging Egypt, there was no hunger in the land;

Do not worry about me! Behold, I am healthy and alive. Behold, you are like one who can eat his fill, when he was (already so) hungry that he had sunken eyes. Behold, the whole of Egypt has died (and) you did not hunger

The simple fact he had enough to eat while Egypt was in a state of famine adds glue to the factochain we are building, that of Jospeh being a real vizier under the jurisdication of Pharoah Amenemhat I. This leads us next to an Egyptian tale called The Story of Sinuhe – set during the reign of Amenemhat’s successor, Sensuret I – in which we observe Sinuhe fleeing Egypt & finding shelter in the hills of Canaan with a certain King Amuneshi. The name of this protector transchispers into Joseph’s own son Manasseh, the patriarch of his eponymous tribe. That the Israelites lived in both Egypt & Canaan in these days is confirmed thro’ an early translation of the Old Testament (the Septuagint made under Ptolemy ), which reads; ‘the sojourning of the children of Israel, that is which they sojourned in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan, was four hundred and thirty years.’

Pictorial evidence for such a cross-national existence comes in the tomb of Knumhotep II, a ‘Great Chief’ who ruled the Oryx nome during the reigns of Amenemhat II & Sensuret II. His wonderful tomb relief shows a group of bow-wielding Semitic Asiatics know as ‘Aamu’ led by a certain Abisha. This name philocisps into the Hebrew term ‘beoshri,’ which means ‘in my good fortune.’ From here we transchisper easily to Joseph’s brother, Asher, whose name is said in the Torah to mean ‘happy-blessing.‘ Abish & Asher fit, with more support for the genflation coming from the Torah statement that Asher migrated to Egypt & the same time as Jacob & co.

And these are the names of the children of Israel, who came into Egypt, Jacob and his sons… Asher… And the sons of Asher: Imnah, and Ishvah, and Ishvi, and Beriah, and Serah their sister; and the sons of Beriah: Heber, and Malchiel.

Finally, that Sobeknahkt’s tomb lay empty & broken connects with biblical transference of Joseph’s bones to Israel (Exodus 13-19), when Joseph, ‘Was embalmed and laced in a coffin in Egypt.’

B.C. 1700: The Hyksos Homeland


As we follow the traces of the Stone of Destiny, a major factor in its movement to Scotland can be found in what I have call’d the Hyksosean Stream. This is the cultural anthrotree of a tribal group call’d the Hyksos, who appear’d as a major force in the ancient world in the middle of the second millenium B.C. What has been left uncover’d just far is just how significant a geopolitical presence they were.

First thing’s first, it will be prudent to establish the homelands of the Hyksos, center’d upon the Bactria-Margiana Archeological Complex, or BMAC. Deep in the heart of southern, Asiatic Russia, it is only since the end of the Cold War that the Wst first learnt of its existence, to which information we can very little so cautiously secretive have been the Russians. We do know that the BMAC survived until 1700 BC, after which its population began searching for other realms to settle.

It is in Bactria that the world’s first war chariots were developed out of conventional two-wheel farming carts, which would later become famous in the hands of the Hyksos. Also applicable to our investigation is the ancient Amu River which flows through the BMAC lands, known today as the Oxus. The first whiff of the Hyksos being Bactrian begins here, for the name Amu was the very one given to the Hyksos by the Egyptians & of course we have the following babel-chain

River Oxus

In the Near East they Hyksos were divided into two branches; the Kassites & the Mitanni. Where art from Bactria and Margiana depict an, ‘anthropomorphic winged deity with an avian head holding two mountain goats by the legs,’ the same image can also be found among the Mitanni of ancient Syria, who also used the ‘new-fangled’ Hyksosean war-chariot. The Mitanni are then related to the Kassites, who first appear in Western Iran about 1800 BC. Two hundred years later they captured Babylon and ruled it for over four centuries. It is in the Kassite overlordship of Babylon & their production of seals in the city to the god ‘Uzi-Sutach’ which connects the Kassites to the Hyksos, who produced seals in the same period dedicated to ‘Sutech.’

B.C. 1650: Cronos Conquers Egypt

Manetho was a man who was by birth an Egyptian; yet had he made himself master of the Greek learning: this Manetho, in the second book of his Egyptian history {reports} there came, after a surprizing manner, men of ignoble birth out of the eastern parts, and had boldness enough to make an expedition into our country, and with ease subdued it by force; yet without our hazarding a battle with them.

So when they had gotten those that governed us under their power, they afterwards burnt down our cities, and demolished the temples of the Gods, and used all the inhabitants after a most barbarous manner. Nay some they slew; and led their children and their wives into slavery. At length they made one of themselves King, whose name was Salatis; he also lived at Memphis, and made both the upper and lower regions pay tribute, and left garrisons in places that were the most proper for them. He chiefly aimed to secure the eastern parts, as foreseeing that the Assyrians, who had then the greatest power, would be desirous of that Kingdom, and invade them. And as he found in the Saite Nomos [Seth-roite], a city very proper for this purpose, and which lay upon the Bubastick channel, but with regard to a certain theologick notion was called Avaris; this he rebuilt; and made very strong by the walls he built about it, and by a most numerous garrison of two hundred and forty thousand armed men which he put into it to keep it.

This whole nation was styled Hycsos, that is, Shepherd Kings: for the first syllable Hyc, according to the sacred dialect, denotes a King: as is sos a shepherd: but this according to the ordinary dialect: and of these is compounded Hycsos: but some say that these people were Arabians.


To summarize the above passage by the brilliant Jewish Roman-era historian, Josephus. The follwoing are some of the main points concerning the Hyksos;

Men of ignoble birth out of the eastern parts, and had boldness enough to make an expedition into our country
At length they made one of themselves King, whose name was Salatis
This whole nation was styled Hycsos, that is, Shepherd Kings: for the first syllable Hyc, according to the sacred dialect, denotes a King: as is sos a shepherd
Some say that these people were Arabians.

We shall later analyze in more detail the Semetic nature of the Hyksos, but for now let us date their entry into Egypt based on Female Hebrew names which appear in a 17th century BC manuscript known as the Brooklyn papyrus. In addition, while the sites of Semitic settlements have been found all throughout Egypt, especially in the region around the Hyksos capital at Avaris. In the latter place, a Syrian palace has been discovered, suggesting a Near Eastern origin for the Hyksos elite, as supported by Eusebius.

In the next chapter we shall also see how a certain Hyksos king of Egypt, Seuserenre, was the great god, Zeus. How he got there begins with his father mythologised by the Greeks as Cronos. In the more tangible world, the previous king to Seuserenre was call’d Sakir-Har, as mentioned on an excavated doorjamb from Tell el-Dab’a;

[Horus who… …] The possessor of the Wadjet and Nekhbet diadems who subdues the bow people. The Golden Falcon who establishes his boundary. The heka-khawaset, Sakir-Har

Notice how Sakir’s ‘heka’ prenomen matches the Hyc of Josephus, which ‘according to the sacred dialect, denotes a King.’ We also have a couple more philochisps of significance. In the name ‘Sakir’ is embedded the KR of Kronos/Cronos, While Salati & Sakahir are seperated by two philofortes, but begin identically & have two philopianos. returning to Cronos, he was known by quite differing names across the ancient world, being; Seb (Egyptian), Repa (Coptic), Kaiwan (Akkadian), Chiun (Hebrew), Cronos (Greek), and Saturn (Latin). The Hyksosean Hebrew version, Chiun, also connects to the babel-chain;

  • C -hiu-n
  • k-aiw-a – n

B.C. 1600:The True Zeus

The majority of the gods, the Cretans say, had their beginning in Crete and set out from there to visit many regions of the inhabited world, conferring benefactions upon the races of men and distributing among each of them the advantage which resulted from the discoveries they had made.

According to the myth which the priests give, the gods had their origin in Crete, and were led by Zeus to Panchaea at the time when he sojourned among men and was king of the inhabited earth… it has been their practice, in corroboration of these claims, to point to inscriptions which, they said, were made by Zeus during the time he still sojourned among men and founded the temple… Now Zeus, the myth goes on to say, surpassed all others in manly spirit and wisdom and justice and in the other virtues one and all, and, as a consequence, when he took over the kingly power from Cronus, he conferred benefactions of the greatest number and importance upon the life of mankind. He was the first of all, for instance, to lay down rules regarding acts of injustice and to teach men to deal justly one with another, to refrain from deeds of violence, and to settle their differences by appeals to men and to courts of justice. In short, he contributed in abundance to the practices which are concerned with obedience to law and with peace, prevailing upon good men by persuasion and intimidating evil men by threat of punishment and by their fear…

Diodorus Siculus

When we look at the Biblical accounts, it is quite evident that elements of the Hebrew Bible are really a mish-mash of much older material, drawn from ancient Sumerian & Egyptian sources. As we have already seen, there is also elements of Greek mythography embedded in the Bible, & thus we may recognize that the transmission of cultural mythography was occuring in the pre-classical eras. This is a very important piece of Chispological awareness that allows us to identify the true origins of the superstar of the Greek pantheon of Gods – Zeus.

According to the third century BC Cyrenaic philosopher, Euhemerus, Zeus had been a majestic, but very mortal, law-giver who had been deified into the greatest god of the Hellenic pantheon. The Greek Zeus found himself living in saw the Greeks emerging from pagan barbarianism.Their first religion was fetishism – worship of stones, axesm trees & animals, then the Cretan pantheon was form’d, based upon an anthropomorphic concept of humanlike gods. From the ‘Big Island’ this new religion spread to the mainland, with Cretans being brought by Apollo to Delphi to be the priest of his cult.

Zeus is said to have been born on Crete – at Mount Ida – & was also buried on the island. The classical writer, Porphyry, claimed that Pythagoras once inscribed an epigram on Zeus’s tomb, reading ‘Zeus deceased here lies, whom men call Jove.’ The full passage reads;

Going to Crete, Pythagoras besought initiation from the priests of Morgos, one of the Idaean Dactyli, by whom he was purified with the meteoritic thunder-stone. In the morning he lay stretched upon his face by the seaside; at night, he lay beside a river, crowned with a black lamb’s woolen wreath. Descending into the Idaean cave, wrapped in black wool, he stayed there twenty-seven days, according to custom; he sacrificed to Zeus, and saw the throne which there is yearly made for him. On Zeus’s tomb, Pythagoras inscribed an epigram, “Pythagoras to Zeus,” which begins: “Zeus deceased here lies, whom men call Jove.

That Zeus had been given a human burial was not a unique situation among ancient deities, for the graves of other gods such as Dionysis, Apollo, Poseidon, Isis & Osiris are mentioned elsewhere in classical literary sources. Over time, the tomb’s location seems to have been lost. Varro placed it at Mount Ida while Lactantius, quoting from the Sacra Scriptio of Ennius, places the grave at Knossos. “Later Cretan tradition”, writes Sir Arthur Evans, “has persistently connected the tomb of Zeus with Mount Juktas, which rises as the most prominent height on the land side above the site of Knossos.” According to Nonnus, Apate used to stay on mount Dikte “by the false tomb of Zeus.” This was possibly confirmed as the true site in September 1415, when the clergyman Cristoforo Buondelmonti discovered a cave in the north of the mountain containing a great tomb, whose epitaph contained “letters totally effaced.

According to Greek tradition, Zeus had a son called Epaphus, or Apis, which is a neat chispological match for Seuserenre’s successor in Egypt, Apopi. This man was the son of another pharoah called Seuserenre, & from the first four letters of his name we can immediately see the etymological origins of Zeus as being a transchisperal shortening of Seuserenre. The previous king to Seuserenre was Sakir-Har, ie Cronos, the mythological father of Zeus, & also the name of Zeus’ mother, Rhea, in the ‘r-har’ ending.

More support for the Zeus-Seuserenre match comes through the concept of the overlordship of Olympus by Zeus, & the self-conceit of Seuserenre, who implanted in his people the notion of his personal deity by declaring himself, ‘the Good God.’ Where Diodorus Siculus places Zeus on the throne of Egypt & gives him the title of ‘King of the Entire World,’ so the Egyptian pharoah Seuserenre (according to William C Hayes) ‘concocted for himself the Horus name, ‘Embracer-of-regions,’ suggestive of world-wide domination.’

Seuserenre’s full name was Seuserenre Khyan, whose offical title, ‘Ruler of the Foreign Land,’ has been found on seals all across the Near East, connecting with the Josephius portrayal of the Hyksos as ‘men of ignoble birth out of the eastern parts.’ The same inscription was also found upon an alabaster jar-lid discover’d at Knossos, the ancient Minoan capital on Crete near to the tomb of Zeus itself.

Returning to Epaphus/Apepi, there are two females connected to him who also seem to have entered the Greek pantheon; his sister Tani, as attested on a door of a shrine in Avaris, & his daughter Herit – a vase belonging to her was found in a tomb at Thebes. Her name is probably a philochisp of another of Apepi’s daughters, Zawit, as mentioned on a bowl found in Spain. These names philochisp into Athena & Hera, two of the most prominent goddesses of Greek mythology. The family tree shows how three of the most prominent members of the Olympic pantheon appear, when transchisper’d, closely bunched together;

Seuserenre (Zeus) = Io
Apepi (Epaphus) / Tani (Athena)
Herit (Hera)

Securing the Zeus was an Egyptian Hyksos pharoah hyperbasis, according to the ‘Fables’ of Gaius Julius Hyginus, Zeus ‘bade Epaphus, whom he begat by Io, fortify the towns in Egypt and rule there. First of all he founded Memphis, and then many others.’ The mother of Epahus is said to have been a certain Io, which leads us to the ‘Abduction of Io’ as given by Herodotus;

The Phoenicians came to Argos, and set out their cargo. On the fifth or sixth day from their coming, their wares being now well-nigh all sold, there came to the sea shore among many other women the king’s daughter, whose name (according to Persians and Greeks alike) was Io, the daughter of Inachus. They stood about the stern of the ship: and while they bargained for such wares as they fancied, the Phoenicians heartened each other to the deed, and rushed to take them. Most of the women escaped: Io with others was carried off; the men cast her into the ship and made sail away for Egypt. This, say the Persians (but not the Greeks), was how Io came to Egypt, and this, according to them, was the first wrong that was done.

Here we have the story of an abduction of Greek women, one of whom was Io, but the key phrase is, ‘with others.’ Their abductors are Phoenicians & their destination is Egypt. On a mythological level, the 2nd century AD geographer, Pausanias, gives us a story about Zeus lusting for, & falling in love with Io. The legendary wrath of Hera then ensues, through which Io is continuously stung by a gadfly, follow’d by the metamorphosis in which Io becomes a beautiful white heifer. She eventually reaches Egypt, where Zeus restores her to human form & she gives birth to Zeus’s Epaphus. He was then concealed by the Curetes, by the request of Hera, but Io sought and afterward found him in Syria.

Epaphus/Apopi appears elsewhere in the Hyksos sphere, given in a stela as a Chieftain of Retjenu (i.e., Canaan), & also in Syria, as attested to by an inscription on the 2nd Kamose stela.

I put in at Per-djedken, my heart happy, so that I might let Apopy experience a bad time, that Syrian prince with weak arms, who conceives brave things which never come about for him!

Epaphus was also said to be the father of Danaus, whose daughters we shall soon be associating with the exile of Scota in which the Stone of Destiny was taken from Egypt.

Let us now look at another mysterious Egyptian pharaoh called Sesostris. Sensing the extremely similar phonetics shared by ‘Seuse’ & ‘Seso.’ Just as Zeus was the ‘King of the Entire World,’ & Seuserenre was ‘Embracer-of-regions,’ the Roman historian Strabo tells us that Sesostris actually conquered the world. Sesostris appears even earlier than Strabo, for Herodotus has him leading armies into Asia, Africa & Europe, where the campaign in Thrace is an identical conflict to that fought by Zeus against the Titans, who also heralded from Thrace. Elsewhere, Diodorus Siculus places Sesotris in Egypt as a major lawgiver.

Sesoösis now relieved his peoples of the labours of war and granted to the comrades who had bravely shared in his deeds a care-free life in the enjoyment of the good things which they had won, while he himself, being ambitious for glory and intent upon everlasting fame, constructed works which were great and marvellous in their conception as well as in the lavishness with which their cost was provided, winning in this way immortal glory for himself and for the Egyptians security combined with ease for all time. For beginning with the gods first, he built in each city of Egypt a temple to the god who was held in special reverence by its inhabitants. On these labours he used no Egyptians, but constructed them all by the hands of his captives alone; and for this reason he placed an inscription on every temple that no native had toiled upon it.

It is evident that Zeus, Seuserenre & Sesostris are all the same man, & through the Chisper Effect we have been able to weave their individual strands into a single personage. Unity is strength, & it is upon the solidity of this information, the HYPERBASIS, that we may launch deeper, torchlit investgations into the incorporeal mists of deeptime obscurity.

B.C. 1600: The Hyksos In America

The great mainland, by which the great ocean is encircled, while not so far from the other islands, is about five thousand stades from Ogygia, the voyage being made by oar, for the main is slow to traverse and muddy as a result of the multitude of streams. The streams are discharged by the great land-mass and produce alluvial deposits, thus giving density and earthiness to the sea, which has been thought actually to be congealed. On the coast of the mainland Greeks dwell about a gulf which is not smaller than the Maeotis and the mouth of which lies roughly on the same parallel as the mouth of the Caspian sea. These people consider and call themselves continentals and the inhabitants of this land because the sea flows around it on all sides; and they believe that with the peoples of Cronus there mingled at a later time those who arrived in the train of Heracles and were left behind by him and that these latter so to speak rekindled again to a strong, high flame the Hellenic spark there which was already being quenched and overcome by the tongue, the laws, and the manners of the barbarians. Therefore Heracles has the highest honours and Cronus the second.


The above passage appear’d in Plutarch’s‘On the Face appearing in the Orb Of the Moon‘ & describes ancient contact between North America & Europe long before even the Vikings set foot in ‘Vinland.’ The key passage reads, ‘with the peoples of Cronus there mingled at a later time those who arrived in the train of Heracles. A number of scholars both old & young have speculated on the Atlantic voyages of Heracles, based on his passing through the straits of Gibraltar, which were named after him as the Pillars of Heracles. Then, heading to Corunna on the coast of northern Spain, one comes to the tower at ‘Brigancia’, known in pre-Christian times as the ‘Tower of Hercules.’ What scholars do not do, however, is then place Heracles in America, despite the evidence from Plutarch.

By tying what we know about Zeus & his supposed father, to Plutarch’s ‘Orb of the Moon‘ account, we come to a natural conclusion that a first wave of immigrant Greeks – the peoples of Cronos – had settled in the New World, with a second coming with Herakles, c.1600 BC. The latter influx leads us to the first major civilization of Mesoamerica, the “mother culture” of the Mayans & the Aztec, known as the Olmeks. Historians have remarked on how a complete & sophisticated civilization of artists, engineers & astronomers just seemed to spring up out of nowhere. From deposits at the El Manati shrine (near San Lorenzo) the earliest date for the Olmeks has been given as 1600 BC. That very narrow time-band fits perfectly to a group of Hyksosean colonists pitching up in the New World. Case solved, but lets see if it’ll stand up in court.

The negroid facial features of the collossal Olmec statue heads indicate a connection to Africa, which makes them being a part of a Hyksos empire a sound prospect. In his book, Exodus Lost, Stephen Compton has indeed identified a Hyksos colony in Mesoamerica. Comparing contemporaneous art & architecture, he tells us ‘all of these features exist(ed) among the Hyksos before they suddenly appeared at San Lorenzo.’ Compton also highlights Tlillan-Tlapallan – “the land of black and red, of wisdom” – & shows it as a literal translation of the ancient Egyptian name for Egypt, Kemet Deshret.

The Olmecs built the first pyramids in America, reflecting their Egyptian origins. With the Hyksos springing from central Asia, when a joint expedition of Russian and Uzbek archaeologists discovered several ancient pyramids in Uzbekistan, these flat-surfaced, 15-metre high constructions, at least 2,700 years old resemble those found in Central America.

There is even epigraphical evidence, of sorts. The inheritors to the Olmec hegemony in Mexico, the Aztecs, have a foundation tale which places their original homelands at a place called Chicomoztoc, from which play they & six other tribes settled “near” a paradise island in a lake called Aztlán. This is an obvious match for the Atlantis of Plato, but for now lets simply record the name Chicomoztoca, which means ‘place of the seven caves’ in Nahuatl, the language of the early Aztecs.

According to the Codex Aubin, the Aztecs were subject to a tyrannical elite called the Azteca Chicomoztoca. A trained chispologist sees something in the name, & in the following a babel-chain, the only significant philochisp is changing the ‘m’ to a ‘kh.’

heqa m-ast-
heqa m-asut
heqa kh-asut

All babel-chains need support, & heqa khasut just so happens to be the Egyptian name for the Hyksos, another tyrannical elite which would explain how the Atlantis story travelled across the Atlantic in the first place, via the Hyksos empire

In 1600 BC the Hyksos were the defacto controllers of the Mediterranean. Archeology tells us that at the time Seuserenre Khyan, our Hyksos emporer, was sending gifts to brother kings, including the Minoan leadership at Knossos on Crete. This gives us a definitive cultural link to the Minoan script, Linear A, which shares numerous similarities to the script of the Olmecs. The hyperbasis at the language of Linear A is related somehow to a Mesoamerican language cannot easily be ignored

If we see Scythia as the homelands & main trunk of the Hyksos anthrotree, then Egypt & America are branches. another branch grew into India, & we shall investigate this in more detail in the Aryan Invasion chapter. I have combined these branches under an umbrella term – The Hyksosean Stream – & we can see a clear cultural tally between India & Olmec civilisation. In each one we can see the connection between India, Egypt, America, 1600 BC – & the Hyksos are the common glue. The correlations include;

Yoga, as depicted via several different asana on numerous Olmec figurines & statues.

The Olmecs also established the ritual use of conch-shell trumpets to announce the presence of the gods – a practice still followed in Hindu and Buddhist religious ceremonies.

The Olmeks also had a diety with an elephant’s head just like the famous Ganesh of India, & also some of the earliest depictions of the Egyptian god, Horus. There is an Egyptian relief, for example, which shows Apap swallowing the water & the light of the world, fighting an elephant-headed Horus who is attempting to make him disgorge what he had swallowed.

At the Museum of Anthropology in Jalapa, Mexico, one can see an Olmec altar supported by a pair of dwarves with upraised hands. In India, on both Hindu & Buddhist temples, these dwarf figures called “ganas.”

A similar dwarf icon in ancient Egypt known as Bes, the protector of the household and of childbirth. He is depicted below a cornice at the Denderah Temple complex, which suggests that he played a similar function of supporting the temple in Egypt.

There is a depiction among Olmec imagery of the Hindu-Buddhist Kalamukha, a monster face which hangs over shrines & temples, with foliage being sculptured either side of the entrance. The lower jaw of the monster is absent, which creates the impression of being devoured by the Kalamukha as one enters.

I would now like to show what I believe to be the very first ever mention of Mexico, 2000 years before the panish conquistadors besieged the Aztec capital, México-Tenochtitlan, in 1521. Before then no-one really knows its origin, although the Codex Aubin says that after leaving Aztlan, on the road their god Huitzilopochtli forbade them to call themselves Azteca, telling them that they should be known as Mexica. Reading the myth with a chispological eye indicates that the Aztecs were simply moving to Mexico where they would have to be called, well, Mexicans.

In the Asiatic Society Researches, Volume 11, published in 1808, Major F. Wilford states in his paper ‘An Essay on the Sacred Isles in the West’, “….various etymologies are given of the name of the city of Mexico, the true pronunciation of which is Machico.’ This leads us to Claudius Aelianus, or Aelian, who about 200 AD related a discourse recorded six centuries earlier by Theopompus, between Midas the Phrygian, and Silenus. It reads;

Amongst other things, Silenus told Midas that Europe, Asia and Africk were Islands surrounded by the Ocean : That there was but one Continent onely, which was beyond this world, and that as to magnitude it was infinite : That in it were bred, besides other very great Creatures, Men twice as big as those here, and they lived double our age : That many great Cities are there, and peculiar manners of life ; and that they have Laws wholly different from those amongst us : That there are two Cities farre greater then the rest, nothing to like each other ; one named Machimus, Warlike, the other Eusebes, Pious : That the Pious people live in peace, abounding in wealth, & reap the fruits of the Earth without Ploughs or Oxen, having no need of tillage or sowing. They live, as he said, free from sickness, and die laughing, and with great pleasure : They are so exactly Just, that the Gods many times vouchsafe to converse with them. The Inhabitants of the City Machimus are very Warlike, continually armed and fighting : They subdue their Neighbours, and this one City predominates over many. The Inhabitants are not fewer then two hundred Myriads : they die sometimes of sickness, but this happens very rarely, for most commonly they are kill’d in the Wars by Stones or Wood, for they are invulnerable by Steel. They have vast plenty of Gold and Silver, insomuch that Gold is of less value with them then Iron with us.

So one simply has to ask oneself, does the 4th century BC city of Machimus anything to do with Machico? The Olmek were definitely still a prominent force in that period. That they were ‘very Warlike, continually armed and fighting : They subdue their Neighbours, and this one City predominates over many,’ finds a tally in Olmec art. In the book ‘The Olmec World,’ Ignacio Bernal writes, ‘on Altar 4 of La Venta a human figure bound by a cord suggests a captive. Monument C at Tres Zapotes shows scenes of war & combat. A trophy head is probably represented on Stela A from Tres Zapotes & on Stela D a kneeling figure also suggests that he is a victim of conquest.’ The representation of an obsidian-edged sword would indicate the same, while from stelae A & D of Tres Zapotes we know that the Olmecs possessed lances & knives. For me Machico & Machimus are the same.

Since the 1900s, Mexican scholars have noted that the Nahuatl language is derived from Sanskrit. Even the word Nahua derives from the Sanskrit word for “sailor:” Nava or Navaja. I’ll just give you a few extracts from the excellevt essat ‘On Nahuatl & Sanskrit’ by Juan Miguel de Mor.

One of those intellectuals, the foremost in this regard, established interest-ing comparisons between Sanskrit and the language spoken througout the Aztec Empire before the arrival of the Spanish conquerors and which is still spoken in various parts of Mexico : Nahuatl. This student of the language of Kãlidãsa was Doctor Gumersindo Mendoza… and in 1878 published his Estudio Comparativo entre el Sánscrito y el Náguatl (Comparative study between Sanskrit and Nahuatl ) in Mexico – In eight tables or charts, Mendoza compares one hundred and seventeen Sanskrit words with an equal number of words in Nahuatl… Mendoza states in his study – suffices to be able to see clealy that the two languages recognize the same basis the same stem of the human species : the first – he refers to Sanskrit – carried to the highest degree of perfection from time immemorial; the second, when the conquerors reached this land, was still in a state called by philologists the state of agglutination or that of semi-flexion.

Mendoza begins with ap which, according to Monier-Williams, Benfey, Renou, Stchoupak and others, means ” water, air, waters personified ” in Sanskrit and which lie compares with the Nahuatl a pantli which is ” current, canal, irrigation channel Similarly apano is, in Nahuatl, •« to cross a current of water “

Kuharat in Sanskrit, is the name of a serpent. It is compared by Mendoza to koatl or kohuatl , ” snake ” in Nahua

Ikshana, “a look, view, aspect, sight” (MW) in Sanskrit ; ixco-ixtth 11 face, countenance, by extent ion : eye ”

Mekala , the name of the river Narma-dã ( Nerbudda ) in India, is compared to Mexcala , the Nahuatl name of a river in the state of Guerrero in Mexico

Makha, ” a sacrifice, sacrificial oblation ” ( MW ) ; tlamacazki ” priest, minister of the cult, from the root maka ” in Nah

Toya, ” water ” ( MW ) in Sanskrit ; toyaua , ” to spill, the spreading of water ” in Nahuatl.

As we travel along the Hyksosean stream, we shall be alerted to the Hebrew chisper being present in places like Iberia & Hibernia. Similarily, one of the oldest civilisations of North america called themsleves the Quivira, which philochisps into ancient Indo-Phoenician word “Kheeberi” or “Khyberi” as whiel also present in the Khyber Pass of Afghanistan.

To finish the Hyksos in America chapter, I’d like to show its relevance to the Atlantis myth. For me, Plato’s accoount is the definitive Gordian knot of a chisperball, but a Hyksos connection to the Mexican Atzlan gives us a philochisp, & the following segment from Plato – among differing pieces one might add – supports the babel-chain. For me it tells the story of teh rise & fall of the Hyksos in the Meditarranean.

Many great and wonderful deeds are recorded of your State in our histories; but one of them exceeds all the rest in greatness and valor; for these histories tell of a mighty power which was aggressing wantonly against the whole of Europe and Asia, and to which your city put an end.

This power came forth out of the Atlantic Ocean, for in those days the Atlantic was navigable; and there was an island situated in front of the straits which you call the Columns of Heracles (the Strait of Gibraltar, known as the Pillars of Hercules): the island was larger than Libya and Asia put together, and was the way to other islands, and from the islands you might pass through the whole of the opposite continent which surrounded the true ocean; for this sea which is within the Straits of Heracles is only a harbor, having a narrow entrance, but that other is a real sea, and the surrounding land may be most truly called a continent.

Now, in the island of Atlantis there was a great and wonderful empire, which had rule over the whole island and several others, as well as over parts of the continent; and, besides these, they subjected the parts of Libya within the Columns of Heracles as far as Egypt, and of Europe as far as Tyrrhenia (Italy).

The vast power thus gathered into one, endeavored to subdue at one blow our country and yours, and the whole of the land which was within the straits; and then, Solon, your country shone forth, in the excellence of her virtue and strength, among all mankind; for she was the first in courage and military skill, and was the leader of the Hellenes.

And when the rest fell off from her, being compelled to stand alone, after having undergone the very extremity of danger, she defeated and triumphed over the invaders, and preserved from slavery those who were not yet subjected, and freely liberated all the others who dwelt within the limits of Heracles.

B.C. 1585: Zeus & The Aryan Invasion

{Sesostris} Chose out the strongest of the men and formed an army worthy of the greatness of his undertaking; for he enlisted six hundred thousand foot-soldiers, twenty-four thousand cavalry, and twenty-seven thousand war chariots. After he had made ready his army he marched first of all against the Ethiopians who dwell south of Egypt, and after conquering them he forced that people to pay a tribute in ebony, gold and the tusks of elephants. Then he sent out a fleet of four hundred ships into the Red Sea, being the first Egyptian to build warships, and not only took possession of the islands in those waters, but also subdued the coast of the mainland as far as India, while he himself made his way by land with his army and subdued all Asia. Not only did he, in fact, visit the territory which was afterwards won by Alexander of Macedon, but also certain peoples into whose country Alexander did not cross. For he even passed over the river Ganges and visited all of India as far as the ocean, as well as the tribes of the Scythians as far as the river Tanaïs, which divides Europe from Asia; and it was at this time, they say, that some of the Egyptians, having been left behind near the Lake Maeotis, founded the nation of the Colchi. And the proof which they offer of the Egyptian origin of this nation is the fact that the Colchi practise circumcision even as the Egyptians do, the custom continuing among the colonists sent out from Egypt as it also did in the case of the Jews.


A nice passage this; not only does it reinforce Sesostris as a Hyksos king – through the circumcision motif – but it gives us a definitive literary tradition that the Hyksos sailed to India & campaigned there. With this we have reach’d the great academic minefields surrounding what are known as the ‘Aryan Invasions,’ adding a chispological voice to the – in the words of Thomas Trautman – ‘large, noisy public debate,’ One stream of academic thought – based upon archeology & linguistics – has estimated that about the year 1500 BC, an illiterate, pastoral, horse-rearing people known as the Aryans migrated to India. Their origins have never been satisfactorily identified, with Thomas Trautman defining the academic discussion as a, ‘large, noisy public debate.’ The balance of evidence does lean, however, toward the general area of the Anatolia-Syria-Iran sphere & the heartlands of the Hyksos.

Heading east, these ‘Aryans’ would eventually reach the Indus river system & India proper, bringing with them the mitochondrial heritage of their DNA that may be seen – it is supposed – in the lighter skin of certain Indians. Indeed, it does seem that those of the darker hues – the Dravidians – have been slowly, but resolutely, pushed to the southern parts of the subcontinent by the Aryan invaders.

Aristobolus says that when he was sent upon a certain mission in India, he saw a country of more than a thousand cities, together with villages, that had been deserted because the Indus had abandoned its proper bed. Strabo

Straba is here retrospectively writing about the decline of the Harrapan, or Indus Valley civilisation. After the decline of the Harappans, a projected tribal group called the Aryans flooded into the vaccum c.1800 BC. The standard model for the entry into India of their Indo-European DNA, languages & chariots is via the Hindu Kush, where they form’d the Gandhara grave (or Swat), Cemetery H, Copper Hoard and Painted Grey Ware culturess, at the headwaters of the Indus & Ganges Rivers.

About 1800 BC, there is a major cultural change in the Swat Valley with the emergence of the Gandhara grave culture. With its introduction of new ceramics, new burial rites, and the horse, the Gandhara grave culture is a major candidate for early Indo-Aryan presence. The two new burial rites—flexed inhumation in a pit and cremation burial in an urn—were, according to early Vedic literature, both practiced in early Indo-Aryan society. Horse-trappings indicate the importance of the horse to the economy of the Gandharan grave culture. Two horse burials indicate the importance of the horse in other respects Prof.M.M. Ninan

Over the next millenium the Aryans would spread east & south as the Vedic culture of Indian history, centering around Kuru and Panchala on the Gangeatic plain. Looking in the histories, there is a record of Zeus himself leading the attack in the very period ascribed by archeaologists to the Aryan Invasion. Herodotus tells us;

Not only did he, in fact, visit the territory which was afterwards won by Alexander of Macedon, but also certain peoples into whose country Alexander did not cross. For he even passed over the river Ganges and visited all of India as far as the ocean

It is reasonable to suggest that the invasion of India by Zeus was the spearhead of the Aryan invasions. Elsewhere, the 4th century Greek scholar known as Euhemerus tells us that when Zeus ‘was king of all the inhabited world & was still in the company of men,’ he also went on a voyage to India. After traversing the Red Sea and skirting the shores of Arabia – just as Sesotris did – Euhemerus has Zeus establishing a sanctuary upon an ‘exceedingly high hill’ on an island called Panachea somewhere in the Indian Ocean.

It makes perfect sense that the known Asiatic imperialists of the age of the Aryan Invasion actually carried out these invasions. From their Bactrian heartlands, the Hyksos would fanned out east & west in their fast-moving, swift-conquering chariots. Egypt, Greece, Arabia & India all came under the sway of the Hyksos kings, reaching their imperial height during the reign of Seuserenre Khyan in the early 16th century BC. The empire was ruled very much in the fashion of the British, where handfuls of elite Hyksos noblemen ruled over their conquered peoples, imposing their language on other cultures as they did so.

There is enough evidence to connect the Hyksos to the Aryan invasion, allowing us to assemble anthropological correspondences between the two cultural spheres in what is known as an anthrotree. This member of the Chispological lexicon is a shortened version of ‘Anthropological Factotree,’ which is centered around the main trunk of the particular ancient peoples, or tribe, we are discussing. Out of this entity shoot branches – & of course sub-branches – representing Culture, Theology, Linguistics, Archeology & Genetics. Applying the mechanicals in this instance, I hope to identify the peoples of the Aryan invasion of India with a set or sets of peoples elsewhere, thus identifying the source of the Aryans.


An immediate & significant cable-tie between the Hyksos & the Aryans is their common usage of the two-wheeled chariot, well before the rest of Eurasia. It is in Bactria that the world’s first recorded war chariots were developed out of conventional two-wheel farming carts. This weapon would become famous in the hands of the Hyksos, in whose hands it was as innovative as the jet fighter. This viscious lethal, game-changing weapon of war help’d them conquer great swathes of the pre-classical world, including, as we have seen, Egypt.

We can also distinctly associate the living habits of the early Indians, those of the age of Megasthenes, a Greek geographer of the third century BC, with that of the Scythians – ie the Hyksos homelands. Arrian tells us;

Megasthenes states… the Indians… were originally nomads, as are the non-agricultural Scythians, who wandering in their waggons inhabit now one and now another part of Scythia; not dwelling in cities and not reverencing any temples of the gods; just so the Indians also had no cities and built no temples


A religious link between the early syro-iranian Semitic Hyksos & the Aryan Indians can be seen in the religious practices depicted in both the Indian Vedas & the Avesta, the chief text of the ancient Iranian faith, Zoroastrianism. In both faiths the god Mitra is a prominent figure, while the same spirituality-inducing hallucinogenic is known as soma by the Rigveda & haoma by the Avesta. To this we may add the pantheon of the Kassites & the Mitanni – from whence the Hyksos originally sprang. In these gods we may observe Suriash as related to the Indian Surya; Maruttash transchispers into the Indian storm god, Marut; Indas becomes Indra; Mitrasil is Mitram; Uruvanassil is Varuna, & Masatianna is Nasatya.

The Hyksos as RigVedic gods is detailed by Dr. Liny Srinivasan in her four English books, Dezi language speaks of the past, From Crete to Egypt, Near Easter Deities in the Rig Veda and Her book on Mandean and Biblical names in Egyptian Coffin texts. She also is. mentioned in Cyrus Gordon’s Ugaritic textbook & published with him on this subject.

It is through religion of the Hyksos that we can now understand how Judiasm & Hindusim have points of common origin. We have already seen how the Jews left their presence in the topography of northern India, to which we may add a remembrance of the studies of Clearchus of Soli, embedded in the Contra Apionem of Josephus, who declares that, ‘ these Jews are derived from the Indian philosophers; they are named by the Indians Calami, and by the Syrians Judaei, and took their name from the country they inhabit, which is called Judea; but for the name of their city, it is a very awkward one, for they call it Jerusalem.’ In addition we can make the following links;

(i) Both the Jewish and the Hindu calendars are lunar. Yom Kippur in the Jewish calendar coincides with Durga puja in the Hindu calendar. Purim and Holi occur on the same day.
(ii) Both Jews and Hindus perform marriage rites under a canopy.
(iii) The six-pointed star, Magen David, is also a sacred Hindu symbol.
(iv) The pancha diyas or five lamps used in Hinduism are similar to the menorah lit during Hanukkah.
(v) The design of the second temple and the Thanjavur temple in Tamil Nadu are very similar.
(vi) Both faiths remove their sandals while entering a temple or synagogue.
(vii) Both faiths have ritual baths before special occasions.
(viii) Both faithsequire the isolation of women during the days of the menstrual period and after childbirth.
(ix) The death rite of Both faiths are similar.
(x) There are certain striking similarities between the Hindu god Brahma and his consort Sarasvati, and the Jewish Abraham and Sarai.
(xi) The names of Isaac and Ishmael seem derived from Sanskrit: (Hebrew) Ishaak = (Sanskrit) Ishakhu = “Friend of Shiva.” (Hebrew) Ishmael = (Sanskrit) Ish-Mahal = “Great Shiva.”

The Hyksos connection between the Hebrews & India is laid bare by the names of Abraham & Sarah being worshipped as Brahma & the goddess Saraswathi. There is also the Noah type legend of Manu, a king from Dravida, whose ship was stranded in the Himalayas by a great flood.

The name ‘Hebrew’ is part of a babel-chain with ‘habiru,’ ‘abhira’ & ‘apira.’ Throughout Central Asia, the Abhira are remembered in places such as eastern Iran’s Abiravan, while completely satisfying the needs of our anthrotree we encounter the Abhira on the western coast of India between Tapti to Devagarh, & stretching inland along the eastern banks of the Indus. In his rarely read ‘Anacalypsis,’ Godfrey Higgins (1772-1833) points out here were thousands of Hebrew-like place names all across India which had been changed ever so slightly as to mask their Jewish origins. Among these are Seuna-Desa (Zion Land) in Maharashtra, while Nashik is the exact Hebrew name for ‘Royal Prince.’


In 1786, the great orientalist Sir William Jones announced the discovery, or at least a remembrance, of an Indo-European language which appeared to be the mother tongue of the vast majority of Eurasia’s tongues. In his Third Anniversary Discourse to the Asiatic Society, he proposed with much erudition that Sanskrit, Greek and Latin all had a common source. Despite the fanfare he was not the first to suggest such a state of affairs, for as early as 1653 Van Boxhorn had suggested that a language called Scythian was the basis upon which stood Germanic, Romance, Greek, Baltic, Slavic, Celtic & Iranian.

As far as our investigation goes, the Hyksos connection can be seen in Sanskrit’s relationship with ‘old Persian.’ The common source mentioned by Jones came to be known as PIE, after Proto-Indo-European. This is a language of pure, tho’ erudite, conjecture, & can only be partially constructed by pure inference alone. At its core are keywords such as that from which evolved the English daughter, the Ferman tochter, the Greek thygatêr, the Lithuanian dukte, the Russian doch & the Sanskrit duhit. Another word family revolves around the Sanskrit root, ar, which means plough, giving us the Slavic arati, the Latin aratrum & the Czech oradlo.

In much the same consequence we have father, vater, padre & the Avestani pitar. For my mind; the diction, syntax & vocabulary of PIE should have originated with the ancient language of the BMAC, out of which has evolved over 50 near-identical words in old Iranian & Sanskrit.

A serious piece of evidence linking Vedic India with the Mitanni branch of the Hyksos was found in northern Syria. In a cueniform treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni made in 1380 BC, the Hurrian speaking Mitanni king swears by the gods Mitrašil, Uruvanaššil, Indara, and Našatianna, who correspond to the Vedic deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and Nasatya (Ashvins). In addition, the Mittani also produced a horse-training manual (circa 1400 BC), created by ‘Kikkuli the Mitannian,’ which contains a number of Indo-Aryan technical terms;

Manual – Vedic – Sanskrit – English

aika – eka – one
tera – tri – three
panza – pañca – five
satta – sapta – seven
na – nava – nine
vartana – vartana – round

Other Mittani words link’d to Indo-Aryan found elsewhere include the colours babru-babhru (brown), parita-palita, (grey), and pinkara-pingala (red), while the term marya means warrior in Hurrian & young warrior in Sanskrit. The transmigration of Hyksosean language – the PIE – would form the sub-stratum of languages across most of Eurasia, the long-conjectured Indo-European mother-tongue. Siriani tells us;

Since it is Mitanni texts that contain the oldest mention of Aryan deities, there cannot be any doubt about the connection of the Mitanni empire with the so-called Aryan problem. As the replication of Mitanni art in Bactria and Margiana is clearly not coincidental, we are justified in connecting the tribes migrating into Central Asia and the Indus Valley with the settlement process of the Aryan or Indo-Iranian tribes

Elsewhere Sarianidi goes into the details of these Syro-Hittite vis-a-vis Bactria-Margiana glyptic parallels;

In this connection worthy of utmost attention is the impression of a cylinder seal on one of the Margianian vessels, found …. at Gonur. The central figure of a frequently repeated frieze composition is a standing nude anthropomorphic winged deity with an avian head holding two mountain goats by the legs…. Such anthropomorphic winged and avian-headed deities are represented fairly fully in the glyptics and on the seals of Bactria…. These Bactrian images find the most impressive correspondence in Syro-Hittite glyptics….

Connections between Sanskrit & the Dravidian languages are manifold. Dravida Peravai states; ‘The view that the Dravidian languages are the foundation of Sanskrit is supported by both Konow and Keith who noted that the auxiliary verbs, periphrastic future, and the participial forms in Sanskrit were probably of Dravidian origin. Stephan H. Levitt in a recent article in the International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics has suggested that Sanskrit may have adopted many North Dravidian forms. In addition, Levitt is sure that certain Sanskrit etyma for animals and plants that end in -l, are of Old Tamilian origin. Due to early Dravidian settlement in Northern India there is a Dravidian substratum in Indo-Aryan… Burrow (1962) found 500 Dravidian loan words in Sanskrit. In addition, Indo-Aryan illustrates a widespread structural borrowing from Dravidian in addition to 700 lexical loans (Kuiper 1967; Southward 1977; Winters 1989).’


The aotosomal DNA of the Aryan Invasion flows to this day thro’ the blood of the Northern Indians, especially those of a higher caste. These share more with populations from the Middle East, Central Asia & Eastern Europe than the Dravidian Indians of the South. Indeed, the traditionally eastern European R1a haplogroup, & especially the R1a1a subgroup, are rife in northern India.